Until recently, AutoCAD was one of the most popular commercial CAD products. In 2016, it was the third most popular commercial CAD program in the world behind MicroStation and CATIA. In 2018, it was also the second-highest selling desktop CAD product in North America, according to the Analyst Network. Autodesk has also had more than 50 million AutoCAD licenses sold. AutoCAD was often seen as the workhorse of the architecture, engineering, and design industry and has a reputation for being a high-end application for the architectural and engineering design industry. It has also been used for many other types of engineering design including mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, civil engineering, and environmental engineering.
The latest major release of AutoCAD is AutoCAD 2020. As of January 2020, the latest version of AutoCAD is AutoCAD 2020. AutoCAD 2020 features a brand-new user interface and many enhancements. It was released on August 27, 2019. According to the product page, AutoCAD 2020 is “faster and smoother” than the previous version, AutoCAD 2019. The latest update is version 220.127.116.11. New features include:
Additional filter, trim and snap to style properties.
New merge tool.
Better display of sheet sets.
Better display of text boxes.
New elevation tool
Increased document file size limit.
New text styling.
New pin snap tool.
New feature support tool.
New multi-page user manuals.
New OpenGL extensibility model.
New Viewport tools.
New, open-source engineering components.
New palm grip with improved palm control, hotkey changes, and enhanced palm panel.
Improved cut, copy, paste.
New 3D modeling tools.
New snap tool for grids and arcs.
New snap tool for architraves and non-conforming surfaces.
New lock/unlock option for context menu entries.
New pop-up menus.
New pop-up menu table.
New dynamic menu item order.
New pop-up menu with OpenFile dialog.
New whiteboard tool.
Customizable whiteboard style with new per-document whiteboard style.
More common editing
Autodesk has released a series of development suites, starting with AutoCAD LT/NX, AutoCAD Architecture, AutoCAD Mechanical, AutoCAD Electrical, AutoCAD Civil 3D, AutoCAD Map 3D and AutoCAD Map 3D Design, which are more integrated, integrated development environments designed for everyday use. AutoCAD was the first 3D CAD program to support 3D DWG.
AutoCAD has a version called RoboCAD, based on ObjectARX. This release was first released on August 11, 2005 and was available for Windows and Mac OS X. RoboCAD was initially a Windows only product and was intended to make AutoCAD a more comfortable environment for the non-technical user.
AutoCAD has won several awards in its category, including multiple “Product of the Year” awards, “Consumer Product of the Year” awards, “Best of the Best” awards, “Best Hardware” and “Best OS” awards.
From release 10 to 2016, AutoCAD is not designed to work on computer systems that lack full disk encryption, due to the complex nature of keeping track of the user’s ownership of individual files. In version 15, AutoCAD does support Full Disk Encryption.
A 2008 study by Top 10 Reviews of security products found AutoCAD to be “the best overall choice”.
AutoCAD applications have had intermittent service issues over the years, and users sometimes report long waits for an application to start or the program to respond. This is partly due to the complexity of the AutoCAD application design, which is more complex than typical graphical user interface (GUI) applications, and partly due to the large amount of data and large number of tools required to operate AutoCAD. AutoCAD was one of the first CAD applications to have a significant number of file formats. At the same time, AutoCAD also uses dozens of internal DLLs, including DLLs that perform extensive conversion of CAD data to and from non-CAD formats such as the native Windows DDI and DXF formats.
AutoCAD applications are known to be prone to a wide range of problems, some of which are difficult to trace and diagnose. This is compounded by the fact that AutoCAD is distributed with about 100 supported languages and about 300 graphic filters, as well as many third-party applications (which may or may not be fully compatible
Select the file..\..\release\autocad.exe
Autocad.exe *user-id* *key-id* *password-id*
You should start the program with..\..\release\autocad.exe from the Windows Start menu.
Click on the Run menu, then select Command Prompt (Admin)
Type in the following and press Enter
C:\Users\*user-id*\AppData\Local\Temp\ac.exe *key-id* *password-id*
Reversible injury to myocardium by a hemolytic reaction.
Exogenous hemoglobin (Hb) can be a potent inhibitor of tissue oxygenation. Its ability to induce endothelial cell and myocyte injury following infusion into the circulation of animals is well established. We evaluated the effect of in vitro preincubation of porcine erythrocytes with Hb on the extent of myocardial contractile dysfunction and on the availability of myocardial nitric oxide (NO) in an in vitro canine myocardial perfusion model. Extracellular Hb (2.5 mM) was present for 30 minutes prior to perfusion. One of two protocols was used. In Protocol I, erythrocytes and plasma from 5 dogs were incubated together for 30 minutes, and then hearts were reperfused for 60 minutes. In Protocol II, erythrocytes and plasma were from 5 dogs, and then hearts were reperfused for 30 minutes. Hb-treated erythrocytes were not stained with trypan blue, indicating that Hb-induced hemolysis occurred. Data were similar in both groups and no differences in regional myocardial blood flow, myocardial O2 consumption, lactate production, and the recovery of mechanical function were observed. In Protocol I, the percent recovery of mechanical function was 60% +/- 5% and 59% +/- 7% of the pre-ischemic baseline values for the two zones, respectively. In Protocol II, the percent recovery was 54% +/- 9% and 60% +/- 8% of pre-ischemic baseline values for the two zones, respectively. The percent recovery of regional mechanical function following hemolysis of erythrocytes by Hb was similar to that observed after endotoxin treatment (53% and 57%, respectively). The percent recovery of myocardial mechanics and the percent recovery of regional blood flow
Create a virtual drawing library that lets you use one drawing as a template to make changes to other designs. You can use cross-reference, work item, or reference points to link one drawing to another. (video: 1:10 min.)
Drawing and dimensioning tools that save you time and produce better-looking results. (video: 1:47 min.)
Align and Distance:
Find more quickly the locations of constraints and their referenced points, even when the points are rotated. (video: 1:11 min.)
There are many more features in AutoCAD 2023. Find out what’s new in AutoCAD 2023 in this video.Q:
How to combine while condition and list comprehension
I have list comprehension which work like this:
x = [3 if i==0 else 2 for i in range(5)]
[3, 2, 1, 3, 2]
But I want to combine while condition and list comprehension. Something like this:
y = [2 if i==0 else 1 for i in range(5)]
while i == 0:
y = [3 for i in y]
And I want to get this result:
[3, 2, 1, 3]
How can I do it?
You can’t do this with a list comprehension (or rather, a loop) — list comprehensions are meant to generate an initial value and an output, not to modify that value.
However, you can do this with a generator expression, which is a newer construct with more restrictions (e.g., on the grammar of expressions in them, and on the order in which they’re evaluated) than list comprehensions:
x = ((2 if i == 0 else 1 for i in range(5)) for i in range(5))
Here, the for i in range(5) is a generator expression that evaluates to a loop. The expression in parentheses uses a list comprehension to create a list with only one element, which is then looped over.
This allows you to replace the last loop with:
x = (3 if i == 0 else 2 for i in range(
Supported Windows OS: Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows 10.
CPU: Intel Core i5 or equivalent.
RAM: 8GB (RAM size is minimum requirement.)
HDD: 1GB HDD space is required.
Additional recommended Requirements:
Additional not required requirements:
Internet connection required.
HDD: 256MB (RAM size is minimum