See Chapter 3 for more on the layers found in the Channels palette.
## Using the Basic Tools
You can perform basic operations to change, modify, and alter any digital image using the tools listed in Figure 4-6. You can also use the Apply Effects and Fill commands.
FIGURE 4-6: The Tools panel offers an array of digital tools.
In Chapter 3, you explored the basics of layers, groups, and channels. Therefore, it would be a good idea to review that chapter before you get started.
Here’s how to use the Tools panel to create and crop your image:
1. **With your image open in Photoshop, choose Tools** ⇒ **Ruler.**
2. **With the ruler set to** 1⁄4 **inch, drag to divide the image into four, three, or two segments.**
Use this method to create a border or a crop that you can then use to control aspects of your image, like saturation, contrast, color, and so on.
3. **Click the center of the ruler to set the crop origin, as shown in** **Figure** **4-7** **.**
4. **With the ruler anchored, click to set a precise corner on your image.**
You can then crop out or add elements to this area to refine your image. (You’re unlikely to use this method to zoom in or out to change the overall aspect of your image, however.)
The Tools panel also offers the following tools.
To apply an effect to a selection of an image, choose Adjustment** ⇒ **Adjustment** ⇒ **Invert. In the dialog box that appears, click the image layer to which you want to apply the effect. Then click OK and scroll to the upper-left corner of your window to see a preview of the effect. When you’re done, press Enter.
The Select tool is similar to the paint bucket in that it lets you select areas of an image that you can then modify, crop out, or add to your composition.
To select an area on an image, press and hold the Ctrl key and click on an area to be selected. When you see the pointer change to crosshairs, you can move it around, click to add areas, and click again to remove selections. When you’re done, press Enter or click the “x” in
Photoshop Elements will soon be getting a new update 13.2. Why wait? Here’s a list of 18 awesome Photoshop Elements tips and tricks to help you in your work.
1. You can also edit videos on Photoshop Elements.
If you want to add editing to your passion, you can also edit video tutorials and other editing-related stuff using Photoshop Elements.
2. Get rid of the default filters that you don’t use.
Adobe Photoshop Elements doesn’t have many filters. But, if you have used Photoshop or any other photo editor for a long time, you may find yourself using a lot of filters when editing your images. Thus, you can easily remove those filters from the filter roll and use them for other types of image manipulation.
3. Easily change the size of the image without using the ruler tool.
You don’t need to drag any handles on the ruler tool to resize the image. Use the selection button on the bottom-left corner of your image to resize the image quickly and easily.
4. Use the rotate tool to easily create any type of effects in Photoshop Elements.
To create rotation effects, use the rotate tool. Rotate the image for up to 360 degrees. You can also mirror the image using the flip tool.
5. Use the heal tool to easily get rid of blemishes in your images.
If your skin, hair or clothing looks unsightly, you can easily fix it using the healing tool.
6. Change the brightness and contrast of your images easily.
There are two settings available in Photoshop Elements for changing the brightness and contrast of your images.
The first one is the histogram window. If your image isn’t bright or dark enough, drag the histogram bar in the histogram window to lower or raise the brightness of your image.
7. Use the flatten feature to easily remove background from the image.
If you want to remove the background from the image, use the flatten feature, which is available when you right-click on your image in Photoshop Elements. This will help you quickly remove the background and only keep your subject.
8. Edit and crop your images to remove unwanted objects in the image.
If you want to remove an object from your images, use the crop tool. Crop the image by either using the arrow keys or by
The Pen Tool allows you to draw freehand or use one of the predefined pen tools in Photoshop to create shapes, lines, and text.
The Gradient Tool allows you to draw lines and fill an area by adjusting color values between two points.
The Marquee tool allows you to select any area in an image by dragging a white or black rectangle over it, then creating a selection to cut it out.
The Move tool allows you to shift, flip, or drag the selected objects around an image.
The Pen Tool allows you to draw shapes and text, including freehand drawing.
The Paint Bucket tool allows you to quickly select an area of an image.
The Quick Selection Tool enables you to easily select specific pixels or blocks of pixels.
The Smudge Tool allows you to “smeudge” an image using one or more colors as a paintbrush.
The Envelope (Bucket) tool allows you to apply a transparency mask on a selected area, allowing you to extract an area of an image and place it in another area of the image.
The Healing Brush tool is similar to the Clone Stamp, except that it can be used to fix pixels in sections of an image.
The Healing Brush Tool uses the same settings as the Healing Brush tool, except that if you have the Advanced Healing Brush in effect, you can click on the area to heal, then add an object or text that applies an Auto Filter effect, which fills in missing pixels.
The Refine Edge tool is a powerful tool for sharpening images.
The 3D virtual environment of Photoshop is divided into layers, with each layer containing a representation of one aspect of an image.
The layers panel allows you to view, hide, move, merge, delete, duplicate, and group layers.
The Layers panel also shows you which layer is currently selected, and the document’s active or foreground layer.
The Brush dialog box provides options for selecting different brush, pen, and eraser tools. It also shows you previews of the effects that you can create with each of these tools.
The Texture dialog box provides options for selecting different textures that can be applied to your image.
The Color dialog box provides options for selecting different colors, tones, or tinting that you can apply to your image.
The Layer dialog box contains the standard menu options for layers, including hiding, deleting, locking, merging, and moving layers. The Layer dialog box is available in all versions of Photoshop from the Tools�
The most widely used method for producing sodium hydroxide is based on the electrolysis of sodium chloride or brine.
The product of such a process is a saturated solution of sodium hydroxide.
This solution is generally produced by feeding such a solution into a crystallizer in which it accumulates and then it is separated out in a solid-liquid separation process, usually by gravity. This method requires the use of a large number of mechanical and electrical devices, which are both expensive and difficult to operate.
It is known to produce sodium hydroxide by electrolysis of liquid caustic soda solutions, which is the basis for conventional electrolysis processes.
While this method can be used for producing sodium hydroxide, the electrolysis of caustic soda solution is extremely expensive and needs considerable electrical energy.
Recently, various organic polymers have been used as a separant in electrolysis cells.
For instance, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,248,449 and 5,556,879 describe the use of insoluble polymers as the separant in electrolysis cells producing sodium hydroxide.
There, a high-purity aqueous alkali metal hydroxide solution is produced by an electrolysis process that uses an ion-exchange membrane as the separator. A polymer having an acidic functional group is used as the ion-exchange membrane.
This technology is still on the preliminary stages, but the problems to be solved are numerous.
A first problem consists in the fact that in fact one cannot operate a modern electrolysis cell in a complete carbonate or sodium carbonate medium (acid medium) because the ion-exchange membrane used as separator between the anode and cathode is sensitive to the presence of sulfite or carbonate and to its decomposition products such as sulfuric acid, carbon dioxide and bicarbonate.
The latter can result in the destruction of the membranes due to swelling and the release of carbon dioxide which can be extracted and cause the degradation of the membrane.
In order to avoid these problems, it is necessary to operate such cells in a medium with a relatively low concentration of bicarbonate and carbonate.
Another problem lies in the fact that the polymers used as the separant have the disadvantages of being difficult to separate from the spent electrolyte and they are easily soluble in this spent electrolyte which requires extra costs.
It is also necessary to use very pure monomers which are therefore very expensive
OS: Windows 7
Processor: Intel Core i3-4005U 2.6 GHz dual-core, AMD A10-5800K 3.6 GHz quad-core or better
Memory: 4 GB RAM
Graphics: AMD Radeon HD 5750 2 GB or better
Storage: 3 GB available space
Note: DirectX and Adobe Acrobat are not required to play the game but are recommended to enjoy the best experience. You may experience a slightly slower FPS or