For more on adjusting colors, see Photoshop Elements: Resizing, Merging, and Sorting Layers.
* **Effects and filters**. In addition to adjusting colors and shapes, you can apply a variety of effects, including shears, emboss, and blur. You can add effects and filters to images by using a variety of tools, including the Quick Selection tool (in the Tools panel) and the Adjustment panel. See Chapter 10 for more on editing image effects.
* **Adjustment layers**. You can use adjustment layers to control other aspects of your image besides just color or contrast. For instance, you can choose to adjust the exposure or contrast of an image by using an adjustment layer. See Chapter 10 for more on adjusting image exposure or contrast.
* **Filters**. Filters are most commonly used to manipulate photos, but they can be used in other ways, too.
* **Layers**. Layers help you separate your work into different colors, shapes, and other layers and rearrange those layers later in Photoshop. As you’ll see in Chapter 10, you can use layers to easily hide portions of your image as you work. They also enable you to work on multiple layers at the same time, making your work easier to manage.
Photoshop offers multiple ways to share and export images so that you can view, print, or send them to someone else. In addition to the file formats listed in the box on Digital Cameras and Image Formats, it provides a variety of export formats, including bitmap and vector formats, such as Adobe Illustrator and Adobe InDesign. (The AIFF file format is used by many popular illustration programs.)
# Digital Cameras and Image Formats
Photoshop is smart enough to know what to do when it encounters a JPEG image file. If you shoot in JPEG format (TIFF is a better format for the quality it maintains), then Photoshop handles all the different settings for you. For more on JPEG and other file formats, see Converting Files. However,
This article shows you how to edit pictures using Photoshop Elements.
For the purpose of this article, the terms ‘image editing’ and ‘image manipulation’ will be used interchangeably.
To edit a picture or picture, you may need to use Photoshop Elements.
Steps to edit pictures in Photoshop Elements
Open the picture you want to edit in Photoshop Elements.
Adobe Photoshop Elements uses a 3-step process to edit and manipulate pictures.
In this step, we will add a filter to the picture.
Step 1: Adding filters in Photoshop Elements
Go to the Adjustments panel.
Use the image in the Adjustments panel to open the Filters panel.
Use the Add Filter button to add filters to the picture.
Some filters require a preview to see how the effects will appear.
To change the filter, right click on the filter (or use the Up or Down buttons).
Changing the opacity of the filter.
Changing the filter
Open the Filters panel.
Use the Filter button on the top left of the panel to choose the filter that you want to use on the picture.
As you can see, Photoshop Elements allows you to save your work.
You can save the filter using the Save Filters button on the top left of the panel.
Step 2: Moving an object in Photoshop Elements
Use the Move tool in Photoshop Elements to move the objects in the picture.
Grab the Move tool (pointing arrow)
Right click the object that you want to move (use the Tab key to toggle on or off moving the objects)
To move the objects in a picture, use the arrow keys to move the objects in the picture, and click the objects to make them appear in the new place.
Step 3: Adding a creative or random element to a picture
Use the creative, add, or random tools to add a creative, compelling, or random element to a picture.
To use the creative, add, or random tools, right-click in the image and select the tool you want to use.
Types of tools
Use the creative tool to add a creative element to a picture.
Use the add tool to add a compelling element to a picture.
Use the random tool to add a random element to a
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Small change could make big gains, but citizen interest low
Local campaigns in the last two years of the Scottish Parliament elections have lacked local interest. Few people canvassed for local candidates and, when they do, they tend to be those who can afford travel to their local constituency.
Few residents have shown an interest in referendums. Local campaigns have focussed on constitutional issues, which is understandable and desirable, but local campaigns of the sort that have achieved success in the last referendum campaigns will be needed to force local change.
In April 2014, the party having the most votes after the 11.5 million votes at the 2011 elections, became the biggest party in the UK government and one of the three biggest in the European parliament. That success had been built around a strong, local campaign in Scotland. If the next election shows a similar result then, in the event of a hung parliament, the third party will be able to hold the balance of power and push through a programme in the devolved parliament without any power to block it by the UK parliament. The party has already had a referendum to allow any member of the European parliament to be directly elected by the people of the United Kingdom, an important gain for democracy and for devolution. The party wishes to achieve, in time, some further significant local constitutional changes, such as for Scotland to replace its Westminster parliament with an elected Scottish parliament, and also regional governments for England.
If the third party can build on this success and win a majority of the votes at the next Scottish parliament election, they will be able to force local constitutional change through the devolved parliament. With a majority in the devolved parliament, they will have legal powers to do so.
The third party did not exist in 2011. In 2017, it will be relatively new. If the third party can win enough votes next year to be the biggest party and to lead a coalition government, it will create an opportunity for local constitutional change. Local constitutional change has proved impossible for the Scottish National Party to achieve with either a working majority or a majority of the votes. Now is the time for local campaigns to force change.
There are reasons why it will be easier to make local change now. In 2011, the voter turnout across Scotland was 45%. It will be 66% in 2017, three years down the line. As overall turnout in the UK election of 2017 rises, turnout in Scotland will also rise. Turnout in the devolved elections
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